“Yellow Vests”, Secondary School Students, or Just Passers-By: Life After Losing an Eye

“Wasted” lives, incomprehension, or anger: for two months, AFP has collected the testimonies of 14 not only “Yellow Vests”, but also passers-by or secondary school students who received serious eye injuries during the protests in recent months, at the heart of accusations of police violence.

Like Jérôme Rodrigues, one of the prominent persons of the “Yellow Vests”, the mutilated looks of Vanessa, Patrick, or Alexandre were raised as a symbol of “police violence”. 23 people said that they have lost an eye since November, according to the censuses made by the freelance journalist David Dufresne and his project “Allô Place Beauvau?” or by the militant group Let’s disarm them.

AFP was able to obtain the testimony of 14 of these blinded people, while 9 declined – their names are grayed out in our summary table, at the bottom of this infographic.

They are 21 men and 2 women, aged 14 to 59, wounded in Paris, Bordeaux, Toulouse, Réunion … Often, they are “Yellow Vests”, sometimes secondary school students or simple passers-by, contesting any connection to the movement.

Many hold the flash ball launcher (LBD-40) responsible for their injury, but some also point fingers at GLI-F4 grenades, flash bangs, “ballistic dispersion devices”, even teargas grenades.

On Thursday, April 4th, the Minister of the Interior Christophe Castaner indicated on “France 2” that “if there were faults, there will be sanctions”, conceding only “marginal faults” of the police, whose action he defended.

Most have a clear diagnosis concerning one of their eyes: for 14 of them, according to the medical certificates consulted by AFP, their vision is lost and/or one of their eyes is no more. Two prognoses have adverse evolution, towards blindness. In at least one case, in the end, the wound is less visible, the eye is always present, but only a few shapes appear.

If some try to make sense of events, such as 49-year-old Patrice, who see it as a “passport for the fight against so-called non-lethal weapons”, they are numerous to mope, for some prostrating at home or living like “moles” in the dark. “I would have preferred to take ten years in prison,” laments Alexandre. One even told AFP that he tried to commit suicide.

David Breidenstein, 40 years old, wounded in Paris on March 16th:

“I left Troyes by train, with some 40 Troyes residents. We went down to Gare de l’Est, we went up to Place de l’Etoile. It was at least the 7th time that I came to Paris [since the beginning of the movement]. I am a “Yellow Vest” since the beginning.

We went back to l’Etoile, it started to heat up, so we went down with a pair of Yellow Vests. Then it began to be gassed a little, they fired grenades to disperse everyone a little, so we moved away. I was walking, I turned my head and I received a blow. It felt like a big cinder block hitting my head, so the force was monumental. It’s huge, it put me on the floor, it threw me to the ground. I just had my yellow vest, my backpack, my cigarette, and that’s all. I was a target, I was walking quietly, I was not running, I was tired.

I work in a forge factory, I do everything related to Airbus parts, and so on. I am a sawyer, I cut steel. We make parts, there are settings on the machines, there are plenty of controls to use. So without my eye I do not know how it will be. Now I am at home, I am locked in with closed shutters, so it tires the other eye. As soon as there is a little sun or reflection on the TV, it hurts my eyes, it tires me. So I sleep again for a little hour to rest my eyes a little bit, but it’s very, very tiring.”

David Breidenstein filed a complaint.

Franck Didron, 20 years old, wounded in Paris on December 1st:

“Today we have many different things, and that’s a good thing, because people join the movement for different reasons, but when I started demonstrating it was for reasons concerning purchasing power. The end of the month for me was shit (sic), I had too much trouble finishing it.

When I learned that this movement existed I went to protest. It was the first time that I was going to demonstrate for this movement [December 1st].

I was in a group of peaceful protesters. We were surrounded by CRS. My phone rang, it was my mother calling me to ask for news because she saw on TV that the climate was abnormal. I reassured my mother. Yellow Vests told me ‘watch out, the CRS charge’, I looked right, left, and as I turned my head to look behind I receive a flash ball.

Since I was injured I have wondered why this CRS employee shot me. Where was the act of violence? I wish that this CRS employee would show himself, stand in front of me, and tell me right in the eyes why he shot me. Because there he ruined my life. The most complicated is to appreciate distances, when you get a glass of water. We must relearn everything. I was a landscaper for three years in a company. I used to work mainly for elderly people, but since then I have a lot of difficulty to find a job …. I do not think a boss will take a worker like me with one eye less. They will not take the risk of putting another worker in danger. Finding work will be super complicated.”

Franck Didron filed a complaint, and was interviewed by the IGPN, according to his lawyer.

Alexandre Frey, 37 years old, wounded in Paris on December 8th:

I have a child and I wonder what will become of France. Things go badly, people are starving. Poverty, I see it every day when I come to work in Paris, it is appalling. I wanted to cry out my anger, to fight for my son and those of my loved ones to have a future. It was my second demonstration in Paris. Paris is the capital, it’s symbolic, it was important to demonstrate. I’m not a leader, but I’m not afraid to protest, so I was often on the front line, they must’ve thought I was a leader.

We left for the Champs at around 10am. As soon as we crossed the Seine, I realised that it was not a demonstration like the others. It was blocked on all sides, like a mousetrap. There was shooting everywhere, it was burning, it was war. (…) At one point, my friend was hit in the leg. I comforted him, I put him on the side. They were still pointing guns at us. There I was hit it in the eye, my eye exploded, the socket, the retina, everything. I didn’t fall, but my friends said ‘you have more eyes, you have more eye!’

That day they were all confused, they were more afraid than we felt. I did not break a window, I did not hit a cop, but even if I had broken a shop window, I would not have deserved it.

I’m 37 years old, my life is wasted. I would have preferred to take ten years in prison. I can be given all the allowances of the world, but they took a part of me, what happened to me is marked on my face. I hope I can work again. I do the management, in the middle must be present. I have to adapt to my new life: to walk is more the same, to drive or go to the pool I think even more. I don’t even blame the cops (…) I’m just angry at those politicians who give awful orders.

I am still a Yellow Vest. These people at the roundabouts are amazing. I have little old ladies giving me €10, saying ‘here, to help you’, while they earn €600 per month.”

Alexandre Frey filed a complaint, the IGPN is looking into it.

Patrick Galliand, 59, wounded in Paris on November 24th:

“We went to this demonstration with some friends because we felt that it was important to express our dissatisfaction.

The demonstration was good-natured, there was singing and yelling … nothing special, and then all of a sudden, tear gas arrived on top of it .. Then the police charged. Not intending to get into this kind of brawl, we went with our group of friends to a parallel street where it was more quiet. We pulled back and then at one point we heard ‘They are charging! They are charging! ‘ And there I heard a very loud bang and I had a shock to my head, to my eye. My eye was bloody.

At first there was astonishment. We did not understand. Then very quickly it’s anger. Against politicians, the police. I am fortunate to have been very supported by my employer, my friends and my family. Not everyone has it (…). (In my work) I have to climb on roofs, use machines: there is a risk that I will not see the place where I put my foot (…). If I do things now, I always wear my safety glasses because if anything happens to my other eye, it’s over, I’m blind. Going to the demonstration of the wounded was important to testify, but going there asked a huge effort from me. People were firing firecrackers. Every detonation, for me, caused panic.”

Patrick Galliand filed a complaint, the IGPN is looking into it.

Vanessa Langard, 33, wounded in Paris on December 15th:

“I take care of my grandmother, I am her carer, she lives here with me in this apartment. There is nothing for her. When you live alone, you cannot live. Retirement is the first reason I was demonstrating. The state pays me €380, it is my family who pays me a supplementary salary. Macron talked about slackers, but on December 19th I had a second job that was supposed to start in the schools, in addition to being a glass decorator. I do not think I was a slacker. Now it is not possible anymore. I hardly ever demonstrated: when I was 16, yes, I had demonstrated against Le Pen …

After the images from the previous weekends, the priority was to be careful. Unlike other demonstrations it was very quiet, I was surprised (…). We come across a CRS cordon. We turned around, and we walked. Plainclothes police arrived, they opened fire. I was hit. My best friend heard ‘pouh! pouh!’ She turned her head, something black fell to the ground. ‘It’s not tear gas,’ she said to herself … For me, lots of things have faded away. But from the images that I saw, I was on the ground, my skull bloody, you could see the bone. My friend is traumatised, she thought that I was dead. Four people who turn around holding hands in order to not get lost, I do not think we were dangerous. At that time, there were no threats, no shouting, no people throwing things.

I had 2 treatments in the hospital: for cranial haemorrhaging, and another for three metal plates. It was on the way out that it was much more complicated. My eye cannot be operated on, it will never be repaired. It’s touched inside: I have holes in my optic nerve. The handicap of my handicap is that it does not see himself. I have headaches, tiredness, people will not understand that I’m knackered, because I have a normal appearance. I feel like I’m not myself anymore. I took care of myself, I loved to put on makeup and get ready, now I can not. My life is now a daily struggle. I have one year of rehabilitation in front of me: my face and especially my brain. I do not hold memories anymore. Connections are no longer made.”

Vanessa Langard filed a complaint, the IGPN is looking into it.

Gwendal Leroy, 27, injured in Rennes on January 19th:

“The Yellow Vests movement is something historic: in the street, in a procession of a demonstration on a Saturday we see everything. Unemployed people, employees, pensioners, people of all kinds, of all trades. Everyone is in the street, there is no background with trade unions, it is really citizen. Yes, it’s really something historic. (When) there is a law that passes or another one that attacks a certain trade, (like) truck drivers, nobody helps each time to this or that class of trade that is attacked. As a result, each time the laws are passed. If, for example, there is a bad law with regard to nurses, everyone should go to the streets, and here I can tell you the laws would not be passed. But people do not feel concerned anymore.

(That’s) what happened to me, I think on Maréchal Joffre street. We had really decided to leave, it was 6 pm or later, we had to do a two hour journey. And going up the street, arriving at the bus stops, I heard a grenade land at my feet. One hears the noise, so one inevitably (says) ‘what is it?’ and one turns, and so I saw a flash, a violent explosion. Right away I felt something that hit my face. I still did not yet feel that I had lost the use of (my) eye.

At the hospital, someone approached me. They raised the eyelid of my left eye, and that’s when I realised that it was serious, because he called others and then shouted ‘we will take care of it right away!’

I do not even know if I’ve accepted it yet, that’s the thing. I do not know if I became fully aware that it will be final and for life. There are temporary awarenesses. There are times when I will be sitting on a chair and for 10-15 seconds I will be more lucid, I will tell myself ‘oh yeah, I lost an eye’. And it is at precisely at these moments, whether it be morally or psychologically, that my day hits the floor.

I was a forklift driver. I do not know if it’s still possible to drive a forklift. And then, there is the part ‘how to find a job’: what employer would want, quote, ‘someone who has only one eye’ while there are a lot of people on the jobs market (who have) two eyes.”

Gwendal Leroy filed a complaint.

Fiorina Lignier, 20, wounded in Paris on December 8th:

“I had never protested in my life, I am not interested in politics. Initially, I thought that President Macron would react, but he didn’t at all, he pretended to be deaf. These are problems that affect everyone and if no one moves, it will not change. So I wanted to go myself to support the ‘Yellow Vests’. Certainly it does not affect young people, but in five years it will affect us too. We are the 6th strongest economic power in the world, and our retirees are forced to continue to work, this is aberrant! The day before Act 4, we decided to go to Paris with Jacob (her boyfriend of two years).

At around 14:00, the breakers started to attack the shops. We are at the top of the Champs in the middle of a good hundred very calm ‘Yellow Vests’. There were no breakers among us, no one had a masked face or a violent look. With Jacob, we do not wear a yellow vest: the stores were out of stock. Mobile gendarmes prevented us from going backwards. The police officers charged and at that moment I received a grenade. I felt a shock throughout the body. I had a blackout for a few seconds. I underwent a first emergency operation to sew up my eye. Then I was then hospitalised for 16 days in La Salpétrière, where I underwent a second operation to restructure my face. I was told right away that I had lost the use of my eye.

They will take away my eye because I have pain when it moves. I sleep a lot. I cannot stay standing for too long, my head still spins a lot. Showers – it’s complicated. My muscle to open the eyelid does not work any more, it was severed, but at times the eye opens and I cannot close it (…) I cannot read. It’s not at all the same life, it’s all slow motion. I even have difficulty with daily cleaning: I do tidying for 10 minutes and I’m out of breath. It’s very rare that the shutters are open, I live like a mole. I have ghost sensations. The fundraiser (€50,000), I find it huge. So much solidarity! I have trouble realising because I’m a student, so €50,000 … it’s a jackpot.”

Fiorina Lignier filed a complaint, the IGPN is looking into it.

Jean-Marc Michaud, 41, wounded in Bordeaux on December 8th:

We were there peacefully, not as aggressors. If I had wanted to ‘hit’ the CRS, I would have gone with 50 friends, not with my little wife (…). Shit! We still have the right to shout out, we do not want these political wheeler-dealers in France, who fill their pockets, who think only about the rich.

My first demonstration was not dangerous, it was in Rochefort, 75% were retirees. As it had been a month since I had not seen my wife, (going to protest) was an opportunity to spend some time together and have fun, because it was very festive. Towards 16:30/17:00 it began to deteriorate, there was the first tear and grenades. (…) There was the first charge of the Anti-Crime Brigade, which incited us. We left, we hid behind a wall, I pushed my wife there and I put (my hands) in the air (he mimics his gesture) and there they shot me like a dog, 5/6 meters away, 7 meters maximum (…). I woke up on Sunday evening at the hospital, in a sterile room, connected to things everywhere. (…) Then I saw my wife enter, in a jumpsuit (…). I cried.

At the moment there is no future, there is only the present. And I think that all the victims are like that. Physically I feel good, I am combative. On the other hand, morally I have weaknesses. The loss of an eye is something very difficult. I was very sporty, I kayaked at sea, I went fishing … There are many things I cannot do anymore. I was a horticulturist. Recently, I was pruning the vines at a winemaker, but I cannot do this anymore because I no longer have 3D. I cannot take my wife in my arms anymore. I cannot even look at myself in the mirror, I have not shaved since. I do not recognise myself. When I manage to accept myself, then I will accept my wife’s cuddles.”

The IGPN is looking into it.

Patrice Philippe, 49, wounded in Paris on December 8th:

“I was in Paris on December 8th 2018. Paris is symbolic, it’s the capital, I told myself that I was going to bring a little more yellow on the Champs-Elysees. It was my first demonstration. I departed with peaceful intentions. One important thing: my father is a former mobile policeman. I did not go up to Paris to snap a cop. In the morning, the ambience was good.

At 11:00 I received my first flash ball shot on my wrist (…). The violence rose exponentially, Yellow Vests were beginning to pull up the pavement on the Champs-Elysees (…). At one point, I wanted to leave. I realised that it’s impossible (…). This encirclement phenomenon of blocking everything off, I call it pigeon shooting (…). When there was one period where the Yellow Vests retreated, I advanced without signs of aggression. I wanted to go talk with a gendarme so that he would let me leave (…) and there a blast, a grenade that deafened and disoriented me, and a few seconds later a flash ball was fired at my eye. I staggered (…). The first Yellow Vest who saw me – when I saw his horrified face, I told myself that I’m not good, I took a few steps and I fell.

I had the ‘luck’ of my eye remaining intact (in its shape) but there has been destruction of the retina (…) and behind the optic nerve. I will not see with this eye anymore (…). My lorry driving career was a passion, it lasted 25 years, I arrived at the pinnacle of the profession: I was doing large convoys (…). I have a 14 year old girl, I do not want to slip on depressive ground, I have to remain standing (…). I do not want to end up in (a specialised structure) assembling chair legs. What can a one-eyed man do? (…) Even if the movement is exhausted, I will still be there (..). They gave me the passport for a fight much more important to me (smile), against the so-called non-lethal weapons.”

Patrice Philippe filed a complaint, the IGPN is looking into it.

Cédric Pose, 34, wounded at La Possession on November 27th:

“I was not a demonstrator, I was for the Yellow Vests, I supported them. That day I was at home cooking for Yellow Vest friends.

I went out of the house to call to come to eat, I was shot in the eye by law enforcement. I was not too far away from them, I was targeted, and friends confirmed that it was the police who shot me.

My left eye has lost its vision completely, I have more vision and from now on, I cannot do much anymore. In my right eye the vision is dropping. I try to overcome it little by little, because as you can see here, I have my own little house, I am alone. At the moment I cannot work anymore. Since I cannot do much, for me life is not easy right now. From time to time, my friends come to see me for news. Since I’m hurt, I do not really have time to be with them anymore.”

Cédric Pose filed a complaint, no investigation was opened.

Ninef Radjah, 36, wounded in Toulon on January 12th:

Ninef Radjah was in Toulon for an appointment that was canceled. So he spent the afternoon “hanging out, talking with friends,” he says, but he assures that he’s not a “Yellow Vest” and hasn’t participated in demonstrations. At around 18:00 he was on Republic Avenue, a street along the road to Toulon closed to traffic because of the protest, “with a bottle in my hand, drinking, enjoying life”.

The demonstration ended, some “Yellow Vests” remained on the avenue as the night began to fall. Ninef “looked at what was happening and did not feel concerned by the police who were on the spot,” said his lawyer. “The police, for no reason, started to charge,” according to the story that Ninef Radjah told to his lawyer, Maître Caporossi. “He had a moment of hesitation, he didn’t really understand what was going on”, when he found himself injured, reports Maître Caporossi again. “I saw men in black charging, I dropped my bottle, I ran after I felt something on my head,” described Ninef Radjah, when he was asked about the precise moment of his injury.

Today, he is fighting “not to fall into depression”. “He has headaches and sleeps 17 hours a day,” said Cynthia Cazorla, a witness and his lawyer.

Ninef Radjah filed a complaint, the IGPN is looking into it.

Jérôme Rodrigues, 39, wounded in Paris on January 26th:

“I was out on the street trying to make this government understand that it is important that today the French people can live in a dignified way with the salary that they earn and the work that they do – I have values of work, I was raised that way – and it is regrettable that he does not hear it. I had been waiting for a movement like the ‘Yellow Vests’ for years. We should have done this in 2008 during the banking crisis that we were asked to bail out (…). I did not wait for Macron to say to go down the street [to find a job – ed], I went across France to find a job and it does not work.

I saw a team of yellows who are friends with me who had just been gassed. I told them ‘get out of here guys, do not hurt yourself, do not lose an eye’. I saw a squad of police officers starting to get ready for a bit of action. I knew that I did not bother them at this moment, but I had this retreating movement. I told myself ‘back off, the guys will go to work, we will not disturb them’. And there, bang, I took a grenade at my feet, which stunned me for a second, and one to two seconds later there was a huge impact at the level of my eye from a flash ball that was launched.

And today, what’s going on? Two lives are broken. Mine. And the policeman who shot me, what will happen to him? Maybe he has a wife and children. So he respected an order, he is in his right, of course, but maybe he also has a destroyed life on his conscience. Being a symbol bothers me. I was fighting to fill my fridge, for RIC (Citizens’ Initiative Referendum) and the end of privileges [for the rich – ed], and I realise that today I will have to lead a new fight. I realised that my voice seems to matter. When it started, I felt invested in a mission as a witness-actor. Today, I have a new responsibility that falls on me, it is to try to take the movement further.”

Jérôme Rodrigues filed a complaint, the IGPN is looking into it.

Ritchie Alexis, 34, wounded in Saint-Paul on November 19th:

Living in Saint-Paul, Ritchie Alexis was asked by a friend to come meet protesters and “tell them to calm down so that the image of the neighbourhood is not tarnished,” said his lawyer Maître Rémy Boniface, of the Saint-Denis Bar in Réunion. This 34-year-old man, “respected by all” and “known for his calm temperament”, tried to calm the situation during tensions between the police and young people in the district of La Grande Fontaine, details the lawyer.

According to his lawyer, Ritchie Alexis, having “calmed spirits” for the first time in the morning, returned home for lunch, then joined the protesters again “at around 16:00”. The situation is tense: “the young people erected a roadblock and faced police forces”. Maître Rémy Boniface said that Ritchie then went to the demonstrators “to ask them to calm down”. “While there was no warning from the police, my client heard a first detonation, then a second, and it is at that moment that he received a projectile in his eye”, assures the lawyer.

“There is a lot of heartache and misunderstanding, he wants to know the truth, he is not angry, he admits that even members of the police can be mistaken and open fire by mistake, but he wants the perpetrators to recognise their mistake,” said his lawyer.

Ritchie Alexis has not yet filed a complaint, no investigation has been opened.

J-L, 17 years old, injured in Béziers on December 6th:

J., was leaving his school, where clashes between secondary school students, “Yellow Vests” and police officers were happening, according to his father. “My son was neither a demonstrator nor a Yellow Vest,” he insisted to AFP.

During this demonstration, the young man was hit in his left eye “without any doubt” by a flash ball, said his father. “He was just coming out of secondary school,” he lamented.

Operated on December 14th, the young man underwent facial reconstruction but lost the use of his left eye. His father, who is now waiting for “justice to be dealt”, launched an appeal for witnesses on television. He wants the cause of his son’s injury to be recognised and to have compensation.

J. filed a complaint, the IGPN is looking into it.

Jacky Sinédia, 58, wounded in Saint-Louis on November 27th:

Janitor in Saint-Louis, Jacky Sinédia was on his way to his grandmother’s house, he assured AFP. He also claims that he does not support the “Yellow Vests”, “did not participate at all in any protest”, and “has nothing to do” with the movement.

“There were clashes between the police and the protesters. There was a lot of noise, there were explosions of tear gas and stun grenades, people screamed and ran everywhere,” said Jacky Sinédia. The 58-year-old father “fears for his daughter and grandson”, who take refuge at his grandmother’s, and leaves his mother-in-law’s home to try to join them. “I wasn’t yet in the street, while I received a projectile right in my left eye, I thought I was going to die and then I blacked out,” he said.

Since the events, Jacky Sinédia is on sick leave. He explains that he is very psychologically affected. “Every night, I still hear people screaming and the sounds of explosions.” He adds: “I want this case to go all the way, I’m not an animal that should be shot and buried in a corner, I did not do anything wrong, I did not assault anyone, I want compensation to have peace of mind, to be clear in my head.”

Jacky Sinédia filed a complaint, no investigation was opened.

Olivier Fostier, 49, wounded in Charleville-Mézières on March 23rd:

“I regularly go to the ‘Yellow Vests’ demonstrations, especially because of my rejection of the current policies. We are regularly at the end of the procession. This is the first time in my life that I have demonstrated. Macron may not be responsible for everything, we do not even ask him to give everything, but people want work and to live off this work with dignity.

I was walking quietly, and without a yellow vest too. A grenade arrived in front of me. I turned around to protect myself from the gas, and here I received something. A grenade or a flash ball. It was like someone rammed a chisel in my eye. I knelt, I could not stand up anymore. Firefighters arrived immediately as there was a car accident nearby.

My eye is lost. The bone below is fractured. Eventually, there will probably be the installation of a prosthesis. Morale is fine but I start to worry because I wake up several times in the night. I saw a psychologist, who told me that the after-effects will arrive later. For my work, I do not know, I am an operating officer in the domain of cleanliness (in 4 departments of the Great East). I travel a lot, will I be able to drive a car? I am also very often in front of a computer, I do not think that it will be without consequences.”

Olivier Fostier filed a complaint.

Name Date Age Complaint Weapon in question Location
Ritchie A 19 Nov. 2018 34   LBD 40 Saint Paul (La Réunion)
Jérôme H 24 Nov. 2018 ?
LBD 40 Paris
Patrick G 24 Nov. 2018 59
? Paris
Cedric P 27 Nov. 2018 34
LBD 40 La Possession (Réunion)
Jacky S 27 Nov. 2018 58
LBD 40 Saint-Louis (La Réunion)
Franck D 1 Dec. 2018 20
LBD 40 Paris
Hedi 1 Dec. 2018 29
Grenade Puy-en-Velay
J. L. 6 Dec. 2018 17
LBD 40 Béziers
Ramy 6 Dec. 2018 15
? Vénissieux
Fiorina L 8 Dec. 2018 20
? Paris
Jean-Marc M 8 Dec. 2018 41
LBD 40 Bordeaux
Antoine C 8 Dec. 2018 26
LBD 40 Paris
Alexandre F 8 Dec. 2018 37
LBD 40 Paris
Patrice P 8 Dec. 2018 49
LBD 40 Paris
Vanessa L 15 Dec. 2018 33
LBD 40 Paris
Arthur G 29 Dec. 2018 24
LBD 40 Toulouse
Ninef R 12 Jan. 2019 36
LBD 40 Toulon
Benjamin V 12 Jan. 2019 23
LBD 40 Bordeaux
Anonymous 12 Jan. 2019 14
LBD 40 Saint-Etienne
Gwendal L 19 Jan. 2019 27
? Rennes
Jérôme R 26 Jan. 2019 39
? Paris
David B 16 Mar. 2019 40
? Paris
Olivier F 23 Mar. 2019 49
? Charleville-Mézières

Testimonies collected by Mahdia Benhamla, Alexandra del Peral, Sami Acef, Pierre Pratabuy, Isabelle Ligner, Clement Melki, Benoit Petit, Simon Valmary, Elia Vaissiere, Guillaume Daudin, Catherine Boitard, Estelle Emonet, Denis Meynard, Laurent Geslin, and Rémi Banet.

AFP photos by Stéphane de Sakutin, Lucas Barioulet, Philippe Huguen, Martin Bureau, Fred Tanneau, Fedouach Mehdi, Richard Bouhet, Gerard Julien, and Joel Saget.

AFP videos by Tiphaine Honoré, Elodie Maou, Aurelia Moussly, Thomas Bernardi, Ludovic Vickers, and Agnès Coudurier.

AFP, Guillaume Daudin, Sami Acef, Rémi Banet, Francois D’Astier, Fred Bourgeais, Jacky Fong, Clara Morineau

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